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EHC 232 on Static Fields - 2006

ISBN: 92-4-157232-9

Environmental Health Criteria 232: Static Fields. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2006. ISBN 92-4-157232-9.

Published under the joint sponsorship of International Labour Organization, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, and the World Health Organization - © WHO, Geneva, 2006.

Excerpt: "This EHC addresses the possible health effects of exposure to static electric fields and exposure to static magnetic fields. However, only a few animal and human laboratory studies have investigated the effects of exposure to static electric fields. The majority of studies reviewed here concern the effects of exposure to static magnetic fields. For completeness, studies of the effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fields have also been reviewed. In this case, however, the effects of static magnetic fields may well be confounded by possible effects of the pulsed gradient and radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields. Other possible confounding variables, such as noise and vibration, may not have been adequately controlled in many experiments. These studies therefore contribute little to the static magnetic field health risk assessment."

Table of Contents

PREAMBLE
The WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme
Electromagnetic Fields
Scope
Procedures
Static Fields Environmental Health Criteria
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations

1 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES
1.1 Summary
1.1.1 Natural and Human-made sources
1.1.2 Interaction Mechanisms
1.1.3 In vitro studies
1.1.4 Animal studies
1.1.5 Laboratory studies on humans
1.1.6 Epidemiological studies
1.1.7  Health risk assessment
1.1.8  Recommendations for national authorities
1.2  Recommendations for further study
1.2.1  Static electric fields
1.2.2  Static magnetic fields
1.2.2.1  Theoretical and computational studies
1.2.2.2  In vitro studies
1.2.2.3  Animal experimental studies
1.2.2.4  Human experimental studies
1.2.2.5  Epidemiological studies
2 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
2.1  Quantities and Units
3 NATURAL BACKGROUND AND HUMAN-MADE SOURCES AND EXPOSURE
3.1  Natural Electric and Magnetic Fields
3.1.1  Natural electric fields
3.1.2  Natural magnetic fields
3.2  Human-made fields
3.2.1  Electric fields
3.2.1.1  Power transmission
3.2.1.2  Transportation
3.2.1.3  Other
3.2.2  Magnetic fields
3.2.2.1  Transportation
3.2.2.2  Industry
3.2.2.3  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
3.2.2.4  Research and energy technologies
3.2.2.5  Other
4  MEASUREMENT OF STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
4.1  Electric fields
4.2  Magnetic fields
5  INTERACTION MECHANISMS
5.1  Electrodynamic interactions
5.1.1  Magnetic induction of electric fields and currents
5.1.2  Lorentz force
5.1.2.1  Flow potentials
5.1.2.2  A theoretical study of the possible effects of flow potentials on the heart
5.1.3  Magnetohydrodynamic model
5.2  Magnetomechanical interactions
5.2.1  Magnetomechanics (torque on magnetic dipole moment)
5.2.2  Magnetophoresis (force on magnetic dipole moment)
5.2.3  Anisotropic diamagnetism
5.3  Radical recombination rates
5.4  Biogenic magnetite
5.4.1  Single-domain crystals
5.4.2  Superparamagnetic magnetite
5.4.3  Other ferromagnetic inclusions
5.4.4  Local amplification due to ferromagnetic material
5.5  Mechanistic co-factors and other mechanisms
5.5.1  Light as a co-factor
5.5.2  State dependence
5.6  Constraints on physical detection
5.7  Conclusions
6  DOSIMETRY
6.1  Static electric fields
6.2  Static magnetic fields
6.3  Motion induced effects in MRI
6.3.1  Numerical calculations of the induced fields
6.4  Personal dosimetry
6.5  Conclusions
7  CELLULAR AND ANIMAL STUDIES
7.1  In vitro studies
7.1.1 Cell free systems
7.1.1.1  Membrane structure
7.1.1.2  Enzyme activity
7.1.1.3  Radical pair chemistry
7.1.1.4  Crystallization of biologically relevant molecules
7.1.2  Magneto-mechanical effects on macromolecules and cells
7.1.3  Cellular metabolic activity
7.1.4  Cell membrane physiology
7.1.5 Gene expression
7.1.6  Cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis
7.1.7  Genotoxic effects
7.1.8  Conclusions
7.2 Static field effectsin vivo
7.2.1  Static electric fields
7.2.2  Static magnetic fields
7.2.2.1  Neurobehavioural studies
7.2.2.2  Musculoskeletal system
7.2.2.3  Circulatory system
7.2.2.4  Endocrine system
7.2.2.5  Reproduction and development
7.2.2.6  Genotoxicity and cancer
7.2.2.7  Other biological endpoints
7.2.2.8  Conclusions
8 HUMAN RESPONSES
8.1  Laboratory studies
8.1.1  Static electric fields
8.1.2  Static magnetic fields
8.1.2.1  Neurobehavioural studies
8.1.2.2  Circulatory system
8.1.2.3  Body and skin temperature
8.1.2.4  Dental exposure
8.1.2.5  Therapeutic treatment
8.1.2.6  Conclusions
8.2 Epidemiological studies
8.2.1  Cancer
8.2.1.1  Welders
8.2.1.2  Aluminium Workers
8.2.1.3  Chloralkali Plants
8.2.2  Haematology, Immune Status and Blood Pressure
8.2.3  Chromosome Aberrations
8.2.4  Reproduction
8.2.5  Musculoskeletal Symptoms
8.2.6 Conclusions
9 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT
9.1 Static electric field effects
9.2 Static magnetic field effects
9.2.1  Physiological responses
9.2.1.1  Flow potentials and reduced blood flow
9.2.1.2  Movement-induced electric potentials and related effects
9.2.1.3  Other physiological responses
9.2.2  Reproduction and development
9.2.3  Cancer and genotoxicity
9.3  Conclusions
9.3.1   Chronic and delayed effects
9.3.2  Acute effects
10  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NATIONAL AUTHORITIES
10.1  Exposure guidelines and standards
10.2  Device standards
10.3  Protective measures and ancillary hazards
10.4  Ancillary hazards: implantable medical devices
10.5  Optimal performance of workers in static magnetic fields
10.6  Precautionary measures
10.7  Patient exposure to MRI
10.8  Protection program
10.9  Licensing
10.10 Research
11.  REFERENCES
12.  GLOSSARY