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High Frequency Review - 2009

ISBN 978-3-934994-10-2

EUR 60,00

Exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields, biological effects and health consequences (100 kHz-300 GHz) - Review of the Scientific Evidence and Health Consequences. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2009.

Format: Available as PDF and hard cover. Upon ordering you will receive both formats.

Content
: This document is a review of the scientific evidence concerning exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields and the resulting consequences for health.

Since the 1998 publication of the ICNIRP guidelines on limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields, there have been important studies published, that needed detailed analysis and discussion to determine their implications for health. The review aims at providing input to the respective health risk assessment undertaken by the World Health Organization. Together with the review of the scientific evidence in the ELF range this forms the basis for a thorough reevaluation of ICNIRP's science based guidance on limiting exposure to EMF.

Table of Contents

I. DOSIMETRY OF HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Summary
  Sources
  Measurement
  Interaction mechanisms
  Dosimetry

Physical Characteristics
  Introduction
  Quantities and units

Sources and Exposures
  Introduction
  Natural high frequency fields
  Man-made fields
  Exposure systems for laboratory studies

RF Measurement
  Introduction
  Principles of measurements
  Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields
  Instrumentation
  Calibration of external field measurement equipment

Mechanisms of interaction
  RF exposure and coupling into biological systems
  Biophysical mechanisms of interaction

Dosimetry
  Introduction
  Biological models and materials
  Dosimetry of contact and induced currents
  Specific absorption rates (SAR)
  Temperature elevation
  Uncertainties of RF dosimetry
  Other topics

References

II. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF RF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Introduction


Biological Evidence for Interaction Mechanisms
  Biophysical studies
  Biochemical studies
  Summary on mechanisms
  Cellular Studies
  Introduction
  Genotoxicity
  Studies on non genotoxic cellular effects
  Cell transformation
  Summary on cellular studies

Animal Studies
  Genotoxicity
  Cancer
  Reproduction and development
  Nervous system
  Auditory system
  Endocrine system
  Cardiovascular system
  Immunology and hematology
  Skin
  Eye
  Summary on animal studies

Human Studies
  Nervous system
  Endocrine system
  Cardiovascular function and thermoregulation
  Summary on human studies

Summary and Conclusions
  Summary
  Conclusions

References

III. EPIDEMIOLOGY

A. Epidemiology of Health Effects of Radiofrequency Exposure


Introduction

Exposure

  Sources of exposure
  Distribution of exposure in the population
  Epidemiological considerations in exposure assessment

Mechanisms

Outcomes

Review of Studies on Occupational Exposure

  Cancer
  Other outcomes

Review of Studies on Environmental Exposure from Transmitters

Review of Studies on Mobile Phone Use

General Conclusions and Recommendations

References


B. Epidemiologic Evidence on Mobile Phones and Tumor Risk: a Review

Methodologic Considerations

  Exposure characteristics
  Tumor location and laterality of tumor in relation to habitual side of phone use
  Induction and latency periods
  Definition of cases
  Selection of controls
  Response rates
  Precision of risk estimates

Methods of Studies

Glioma: Results and Interpretation

Meningioma: Results and Interpretation

Acoustic Neuroma: Results and Interpretation

Salivary Gland Tumors: Results and Interpretation

Conclusions

References