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Biological Effects of Static Fields and ELF

ISBN 978-3-9804789-3-9

EUR 20,00

Biological Effects of Static and ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Biological Effects of Static and ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields and related Health Risks, Bologna, Italy, June 4-5, 1997. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1997.

Content: Static and ELF fields induce electric fields and current inside the body. At high levels, these induced currents can cause adverse health consequences related to nerve and muscle stimulation. Electric current and field induction from exposure to ELF fields are established mechanisms, and most standards limiting exposure are based on the premise that adverse health effects have been established only above certain magnitudes of induced currents. However, some studies have reported effects on biological systems exposed to static and ELF fields at significantly lower levels than could be explained by established mechanisms.

These proceedings provides an overview of possible health effects related to exposure to static and time varying extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 300 hertz (Hz) and summarizes relevant knowledge gaps to direct future research initiatives.

Table of Contents


International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation  Protection                     V

Acknowledgements                                                               V

Panel of Speakers, Experts and Chairmen                             VI

Foreword                                                                                         VII

Chairman of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 3
J.H. Bernhardt

The International EMF Project                                                           5
M.H. Repacholi

Rapporteur's Report

Biological effects of static and ELF electric and magnetic fields and related health risks    11
T. McManus

General Principles

Physical principles of exposure to static and ELF electric and magnetic fields         21
M. Grandolfo

Criteria for health risk assessment within the International EMF Project    31
E. Cardis and J. M. Rice

Dosimetry related to laboratory studies                                             41
S. Tofani

Biophysical mechanisms and models

Established biophysical mechanisms of static and ELF electric and magnetic fields                     55
J.H. Bernhardt

Biological mechanisms for electric and magnetic field Interaction                     77
M. Blank

In Vitro Studies

Signal transduction effects of low frequency, low field strength EMF exposures in vitro                    91
R. A. Luben

In vitro studies related to the possible effects of ELF electromagnetic fields on carcinogenesis              99
N. A. Cridland

Environmental-level electromagnetic fields and human breast cancer: In vitro cellular studies          131
R. P. Liburdy

In Vivo Studies

Biological and health effects of ELF fields: Laboratory Animal Studies                         143
L. E. Anderson

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and melatonin: Animal Studies                               157
R. J. Reiter

Human Studies

Biological effects of ELF exposure: Human laboratory studies         171
C. Graham

Residential epidemiologic studies                                          187
A. Ahlbom

Occupational studies                                                             193
B. Floderus

Electro sensitivity                                                                 203
B. Ametz


Linking Science to decisions: A strategy for electric and magnetic fields                       211
Ch. J. Portier and M.S. Wolfe

EMF Research at EPRI                                                        219
L. Kheifets

European research initiatives                                                223
B. Veyret