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NIR & Children's Health - 2011

Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology (107)3:311-482; 2011

NIR and Children's Health. Proceedings of an International Joint Workshop organized by COST/ICNIRP/WHO/EuroSkin and hosted by INIS on 18-20 May 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology (107)3:311-482; 2011.

Content: This volume of the Journal brings together the Scientific Proceedings of a Conference on non-ionizing radiation (NIR) and children’s health. NIR comprises electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) and optical radiation.

Although, many research studies addressing the possible effects of NIR on human health have been published and a plethora of scientific meetings taken place, the evidence for such effects remains uncertain and particularly with regard to the health of children. In recent years the results of many epidemiological and biological studies have provided the principal input to health risk assessments and cancer reviews on EMFs carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon and by various national agencies.  IARC has also recently assessed the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet radiation and sunbeds as have a number of national agencies.

As reflected in these Proceedings, the science addressing this issue is multidisciplinary bringing together expertise in the fields of medicine, epidemiology, biology, electrical and telecommunications engineering, computational physics and risk management.

The reviews, research papers and discussions in this volume did not reveal new health-related age-specific sensitivities of children, but some uncertainties which are methodologically difficult to address, are still remaining particularly for childhood leukemia. While the scientific evidence for adverse effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation is much clearer and it is accepted that excessive and/or prolonged/repeated exposure is a significant risk factor in causing skin cancers and eye diseases, research is needed to further clarify mechanisms of disease that would provide a better basis for methods of protection, particularly with regard to young people.

These Proceedings should be of interest to scientists and of value to governmental agencies for policy development and in considering research agendas to fill gaps in knowledge.

Table of Contents

Alastair McKinlay, Paolo Vecchia, Gunde Ziegelberger, Rüdiger Greinert

Session 1 - Childhood Health and Diseases

Childhood leukemia - Risk factors and the need for an interdisciplinary research agenda
Gunde Ziegelberger, Anne Dehos, Bernd Grosche, Sabine Hornhardt, Thomas Jung, Wolfgang Weiss

Non-cancer effects of chemical agents on children's health
Martin Röösli

The challenges of UV-induced immunomodulation for children's health
Mary Norval

Growth and development of children with a special focus on sleep
Heidi Danker-Hopfe

Session 2 - Children and NIR: At particular risk ? Epidemiological findings

Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood cancer: Update of the epidemiological evidence
Joachim Schüz

Mobile phones, radiofrequency fields, and health effects in children – Epidemiological studies
Maria Feychting

Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation and harmful skin effects: Epidemiological evidence
Adele C. Green, Sarah C. Wallingford, Penelope McBride

Predictors and overestimation of recalled mobile phone use among children and adolescents
Denis Aydin, Maria Feychting, Joachim Schüz, Tina Veje Andersen, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Michaela Prochazka, Lars Klæboe, Claudia E. Kuehni, Tore Tynes, Martin Röösli

Reviews on sun exposure and artificial light and melanoma
Sara Gandini, Philippe Autier, Mathieu Boniol

Rapporteur's report on Session 2: Epidemiological findings
Mathieu Boniol

Session 3 - Children and NIR: At particular risk ? Biology and mechanisms

ELF magnetic fields: Animal studies, mechanisms of action
Isabelle Lagroye, Yann Percherancier, Jukka Juutilainen, Florence Poulletier De Gannes, Bernard Veyret

Are the young more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency fields? An examination of relevant data from cellular and animal studies
Carmela Marino, Isabelle Lagroye, Maria Rosaria Scarfi, Zenon Sienkiewicz

UV and Children's skin
Beate Volkmer, Rüdiger Greinert

Optical radiation and the eyes with special emphasis on children
Per G. Söderberg

Early life exposure to 2.45 GHz WiFi-like signals: Effects on development and maturation of the immune system
Manolo Sambucci, Federica Laudisi, Francesca Nasta, Rosanna Pinto, Rossella Lodato, Vanni Lopresto, Pierluigi Altavista, Carmela Marino, Claudio Pioli

Thermal effects of mobile phone RF fields on children: A provocation study
Harri Lindholm, Tommi Alanko, Hannu Rintamäki, Sami Kännälä, Tommi Toivonen, Heli Sistonen, Maria Tiikkaja, Janne Halonen, Tero Mäkinen, Maila Hietanen

Animal studies on growth and development
Alexander Lerchl

Rapporteur's report on Session 3: Biology and mechanisms
Eric van Rongen

Session 4 - Children and NIR: At particular risk? Exposure & Dosimetry

Exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks: Duty factors of Wi-Fi devices operating in schools
M. Khalid, T. Mee, A. Peyman, D. Addison, C. Calderon, M. Maslanyj, S. Mann

Numerical dosimetry dedicated to children RF exposure
Joe Wiart, Abdelhamid Hadjem, Nadège Varsier, Emmanuelle Conil

Local SAR enhancements in anatomically correct children and adult models as a function of position within 1.5T MR body coil
Manuel Murbach, Eugenia Cabot, Esra Neufeld, Marie-Christine Gosselin, Andreas Christ, Klaas P. Pruessmann, Niels Kuster

Dielectric properties of tissues; variation with age and their relevance in exposure of children to electromagnetic fields; state of knowledge
Azadeh Peyman

Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: A computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones
Jafar Keshvari, Teemu Heikkilä

RFID system for newborn identity reconfirmation in hospital: Exposure assessment of a realistic newborn model and effects of the change of the dielectric properties with age
Serena Fiocchi, Marta Parazzini, Paolo Ravazzani

RF personal exposimetry on employees of elementary schools, kindergartens and day nurseries as a proxy for child exposures
Péter Juhász, József Bakos, Noémi Nagy, Gábor Jánossy, Viktória Finta, György Thuróczy

Evaluation and characterization of fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by laptop computers
Nicola Zoppetti, Daniele Andreuccetti, Carlo Bellieni, Andrea Bogi, Iole Pinto

Rapporteur's report on Session 4 - exposure and dosimetry
James C. Lin

Session 5 – Risk Management and Prevention

EMF recommendations specific for children?
Christiane Pölzl

Skin cancer - Primary and secondary prevention (information campaigns and screening) – With a focus on children & sunbeds
Rüdiger Greinert, Mathieu Boniol

Rapporteur's report on session 5: Risk management and prevention
Shaiela Kandel