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Key Visual

UV Workers Protection - 2007

ISBN 978-3-934994-07-2

EUR 20,00

Protecting Workers from UV Radiation. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, International Labour Organization, World Health Organization; 2007. ISBN 978-3-934994-07-2.

Workers may be exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun and artificial sources such as specialized lamps and welding arcs. Although indoor workers are normally protected by clothing and eyewear, the same level of protection is not generally achieved for outdoor workers. Outdoor workers receive significant exposure to solar UVR and are thereby at increased risk of the adverse consequences associated with UVR exposure. The magnitude of the risk for the skin depends greatly upon climatological factors and personal sensitivity to UVR, the latter incorporating both the color of the skin and degree of acclimatization to UVR. However, this great range of individual susceptibiity does not exist for the eye, and people of all skin phototypes are susceptible to cataract and other environmentally related eye diseases. This book provides information and advice on protecting workers from ultraviolet radiation exposure. The adverse health effects of both acute and chronic UVR exposures are reviewed, emphasizing solar UVR exposure of the outdoor worker.

Table of Contents


Characteristics of UVR

Basic Concepts
Solar Radiation
- The solar spectrum
- The effect of sun angles and clouds
Artificial Sources
- Germicidal lamps
- Fluorescent lamps
- General lighting fluorescent lamps
- Metal halide and mercury lamps
- Xenon lamps
- Quartz halogen lamps
- Welding arcs
- Ultraviolet lasers and light emitting diodes
- Optical components and filtering

Biological and Health Effects

Biologically Significant Exposure: Dosimetry
Biological Effects on the Skin
- Structure and physiology of the skin
- Acute effects on the skin
- Chronic effects on the skin
Effects on the Eye
- Structure and physiology of the eye
- Acute effects
- Chronic effects
Systemic Effects
- Production of vitamin D3

Occupational Exposure to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

Factors that Influence Human Exposure to Solar UVR
Anatomical Distribution of Sunlight
Facial Exposure to Solar UVR
Ocular Exposure to Solar UVR
Influence of Various Factors on Exposures in Outdoor Occupations
- The influence of work task and posture
- The influence of task duration, intermittency and shift aspects
- The influence of season
- The influence of customary and protective clothing and headwear
- Shading

Occupational Exposure to Artificial Sources of Ultraviolet Radiation

Factors that Influence Human Exposure to Artificial Sources
Facial and Ocular Exposure
Examples of Exposure in Different UVR Applications
- Welding
- Sterilization and disinfection
- Photocuring and hardening
- Banking and commerce
- Entertainment facilities
- Materials inspection
- Phototherapy
- Research laboratories
- Ultraviolet photography
- Printing industry and electronic industry
- Insect traps
- Sunlamps and sunbeds
- Floodlighting in studios and on stage
- General lighting

Health Risk Assessment from Human Studies

Skin Cancer Studies
Ocular Disease Studies

Occupational exposure limits and safety standards

Application of the ICNIRP Limit for the Skin
Application of the ICNIRP Limit for the Eye
Geometrical Aspects of the Exposure Guidelines
CIE Risk Groups for Lamps

Exposure Assessment

Measurement Aims
- Measurement of indoor workers´ exposure
- Measurement for consultations concerning an accident or a disease
- Other measurement aims
Measurement Devices
- Geometrical characteristics
- Spectroradiometers
- Broad-band UV radiometers
- Personal dosimeters
Procedure of Detailed Indoor Exposure Assessment
- Work task analysis
- Orientation of the detector
- Output varying with time
- Motion of the worker
- Moving Source
- Non-visible source radiation and reflections
- Choice of instrumentation
Relevant properties of measurement systems
- Irradiance averaging
- Field of view (acceptance angle)
- Cosine dependence
- Spectral responsivity
- Minimum sensitivity
- Dynamic range
- Temporal response
- Uncertainty
- Environmental conditions
Ocular Exposure from Indoor Sources
Hazard Evaluation and Risk Assessment for Outdoor Workers
Comparison of Measured Solar Exposure and the ICNIRP Guidelines
Outdoor Exposure Guidelines

Protective measures for outdoor workers

Engineering Controls and Shade Administrative Controls
- Educational Programs: Training and Awareness
- Recognizing Individual Susceptibilities
- Simple Tips for Sun Avoidance
- Work Hours
Personal Protective Measures for Outdoor Workers
- Clothing and hats
- Sunscreens
- Eye Protection
- User acceptance of protective measures
Health Surveillance
UV Risk Management for Outdoor Workers

Protective Measures for Artificial Sources of UVR

Engineering Controls
- Use of enclosures and screens
- Use of interlocks
- Elimination of reflected UVR
- Ventilation and mechanical hazards
Administrative Control Measures
- Training
- Limitation of access
- Hazard warnings and signs
Personal protection
- Protection of the skin
- Protection of the eyes

Conclusion and Remaining Medical Questions