RF EMF FAQs

Frequently Asked Questions on the ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz - 300 GHz). Health Phys 118(5):483-524; 2020.

Fact Sheets 2020RF EMF FAQs in English
RF EMF FAQs in Italian
Statement on Protection Principles - 2020

Principles for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Health Physics 118(5):477-482; 2020.

Statements April 2020
Statement on LEDs - 2020

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs): Implications for Safety. Health Physics 118 (5): 549-561; 2020.

Statements April 2020
Statement on NIR Exposure for Cosmetic Purposes - 2020

Intended Human Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation for Cosmetic Purposes. Health Phys 118(5):562-579; 2020.

Statements April 2020
Comments on 2013 Laser Guidelines - 2020

ICNIRP Statement - Comments on the 2013 ICNIRP Laser Guidelines. Health Physics 118(5):543-548; 2020.

Statements April 2020
Statement on LF Knowledge Gaps 2020

Gaps in Knowledge Relevant to the "Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz - 100 kHz) 2010". Health Physics 118(5):533-542; 2020.

Statements April 2020 
RF EMF Guidelines 2020

Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz - 300 GHz). Health Phys 118(5):483-524; 2020.

Guidelines 2020PDF
Note on Recent Animal Carcinogenesis Studies - 2019
ICNIRP Note: Critical Evaluation of Two radiofrequency electromagnetic fields Animal Carcinogenicity Studies Published in 2018.- Health Phys 118(5):525-532; 2020 (Pre-print published in 2019 under Health Phys 118(00):000–000; 2020).
Notes 2019
Statement on Diagnostic Devices using NIR - 2017

Statement on Diagnostic Devices Using Non-Ionizing Radiation: Existing Regulations and Potential Health Risks. Health Phys 112(3):305–321; 2017.

Statements 2017
Proceedings | Reports 1 Sept 2016
Guidelines on Induced Electric Fields - 2014

Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electric Fields Induced by Movement of the Human Body in a Static Magnetic Field and by Time-Varying Magnetic Fields below 1 Hz. Health Physics 106(3):418-425; 2014.

Guidelines 1 March 2014
NIR in Medicine - 2013
NIR in Medicine. Report of the ICNIRP/WHO Workshop on NIR Protection in Medicine, 2 December 2012, Bonn, Germany.
Medical Physics 40, 117001; 2013. doi: 10.1118/1.4824921.
Proceedings | Reports 16 Oct 2013
Guidelines on Laser Radiation (180nm - 1000μm) - 2013

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation of Wavelengths between 180 nm and 1,000 μm. Health Phys 105(3):271-295; 2013.

Guidelines 1 Sep 2013
Guidelines Visible and Infrared Radiation (up to 3000nm) - 2013

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Incoherent Visible and Infrared Radiation. Health Phys 105(1):74-96; 2013.

Guidelines 2013
Validity and Use of the UV Index
Validity and Use of the UV Index: Report from the UVI Working Group. Health Phys 103(3):301-306; 2012.
and
Reply to William B. Grant. Health Phys 104(1):115-116; 2013.
Reports 1 Sep 2012
7th NIR Workshop 2012
Non-Ionizing Radiation. Videos of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 9-11 May 2012. 
Proceedings 2012All Videos
Body Scanners - 2012

Statement on Health Issues Associated with Millimeter Wave Whole Body Imaging Technology. Health Physics 102(1):81-82; 2012.

Statements 2012Statement in Japanese
NIR & Children's Health - 2011
NIR and Children's Health. Proceedings of an International Joint Workshop organized by COST/ICNIRP/WHO/EuroSkin and hosted by INIS on 18-20 May 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology (107)3:311-482; 2011.
Proceedings 1 Dec 2011Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
Mobile Phones and Tumours - 2011

Mobile Phones, Brain Tumours and the Interphone Study: Where Are We Now? Environ Health Perspect 119(11): 1534-1538; 2011.

Reviews 1 Jul 2011
Note on the IARC Classification - 2011

ICNIRP Note Regarding the IARC Classification of Radiofrequency Fields. Published at www.icnirp.org; 2011.

Notes 2011
LF Guidelines (1 Hz - 100 kHz) - 2010

Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz - 100 kHz). Health Physics 99(6):818-836; 2010.

Low Frequency Fields - Fact Sheet 2010

Fact Sheet on the ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz - 100 kHz). Health Physics 99(6):818-836; 2010.
Published November 2010.

UV Protection of Workers - 2010

ICNIRP Statement - Protection of Workers against Ultraviolet Radiation. Health Physics 99(1):66-87; 2010.

Statements 1 Jul 2010
Interphone Study Note - 2010

Note on the Interphone Study. Published at www.icnirp.org; 2010.

Notes 2010
Mobile Phones and Tumor Risk - 2009

Epidemiologic Evidence on Mobile Phones and Tumor Risk: A Review. Epidemiology 20:639–652; 2009 - doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181b0927d.

Reviews 1 Nov 2009
MR Protection of Patients - 2009

Amendment to the Icnirp "Statement on Medical Magnetic Resonance (MR) Procedures: Protection of Patients". Health Physics 97(3):259-261; 2009.

Statements 1 Sept 2009

In Japanese

Statement on EMF Gdl - 2009

Statement on the "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Physics 97(3):257-259; 2009.

Statements 2009EMF Statement in Hungarian
EMF Statement in Italian
6th NIR Workshop
Non-Ionizing Radiation. CD-Proceedings of the 6th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 14-17, 2008. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2009. ISBN 978-3-934994-09-6.
Proceedings 2009€ 15,00Table of Contents
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High Frequency Review - 2009

Exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields, biological effects and health consequences (100 kHz-300 GHz) - Review of the Scientific Evidence and Health Consequences. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2009. ISBN 978-3-934994-10-2.

Reviews 2009€ 60,00Hard Cover and PdfTable of Contents
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Static Magnetic Fields - Guidelines 2009

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Physics 96(4):504-514; 2009.

Static Magnetic Fields - Fact Sheet 2009

Fact Sheet on the ICNIRP Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Physics 96(4):504-514; 2009.
Published March 2009

Fact Sheets 1 March 2009Static Fact Sheet in Italian
Static Fact Sheet in Japanese
Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia
Risk Factors For Childhood Leukemia. Proceedings of an International Workshop of ICNIRP/WHO/BfS. Radiation Protection Dosimetry 132(2):107-274; December 2008.
Proceedings 1 Dec 2008Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
New Technologies - 2008

Statement on EMF Emitting New Technologies. Health Physics 94(4):376-392; 2008.

Statements 1 Apr 2008
EMF Dosimetry and Biophysics
EMF Dosimetry and Biophysical Aspects Relevant To Setting Exposure Guidelines. Proceedings of an International Workshop, March 20-22, 2006, Berlin, Germany. Ziegelberger G, Vecchia P, Matthes R, Bernhardt JH, eds. Health Physics 92(6): 513-658; June 2007.
UV Workers Protection - 2007

Protecting Workers from UV Radiation. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, International Labour Organization, World Health Organization; 2007. ISBN 978-3-934994-07-2.

Joint Publications | Reports 2007€ 20,00Hard cover & PDFTable of Contents
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EHC 238 on ELF - 2007
Environmental Health Criteria 238: Extremely Low Frequency Fields. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2007.
Joint Publications | Reports 2007Table of ContentsDownload
Ultrasound and Infrasound
Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Effects of Ultrasound and Infrasound Relevant to Human Health. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 93(1-3); January/April 2007.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 1 Jan 2007Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
Far Infrared - 2006

ICNIRP Statement on Far Infrared Radiation Exposure. Health Physics 91(6) 630-645; 2006.

Statements 2006
UV and Vitamin D - 2006
UV Exposure Guidance: A Balanced Approach between Health Risks and Health Benefits of UV and Vitamin D. Proceedings of an International Workshop. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Vol 92(1); September 2006.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 1 Sep 2006Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
EHC 232 on Static Fields - 2006
Environmental Health Criteria 232: Static Fields. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2006.
Joint Publications | Reports 2006Table of ContentsDownload
Eye Protection from Ocular Instruments - 2005

Adjustment of Guidelines for Exposure of the Eye to Optical Radiation from Ocular Instruments. Applied Optics 44 (11): 2162-2176; 2005.

Statements 2005
Static Magnetic Fields - 2005
Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health. Proceedings of an International Workshop, NRPB, Chilton, UK, April 26-27, 2004. Noble D, McKinlay AF, Repacholi MH, eds. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Volume 87, Issues 2–3, February–April 2005.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 1 Feb 2005Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
RF and Health - 2004

Review of the Epidemiologic Literature on RF and Health. Environment Health Perspect 112(17): 1741-1754; 2004.

1 Dec 2004
MR Protection of Patients - 2004

Statement on Medical Magnetic Resonance (MR) Procedures: Protection Of Patients. Health Physics 87(2): 197-216; 2004.

Statements 1 Aug 2004
Security Devices - 2004

Statement related to the Use of Security and Similar Devices utilizing Electromagnetic Fields. Health Physics 87(2):187-196; 2004.

Statements 1 Aug 2004
UV Guidelines (180 nm - 400 nm) - 2004

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation of Wavelengths Between 180 nm and 400 nm (Incoherent Optical Radiation). Health Physics 87 (2): 171-186; 2004.

Guidelines 1 Aug 2004
ICNIRP Publications - 2004
ICNIRP Publications 1992-2004. A reference CD-ROM based on guidelines on limiting exposure to non-ionizing radiation and statements on special applications. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2004. ISBN 978-3-934994-05-8.
Guidelines | Statements | Reviews 2004€ 15,00Table of Contents
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5th NIR Workshop
Non-Ionizing Radiation. CD-Proceedings of the 5th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop Seville, Spain, May 20-22, 2004. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2004. ISBN 978-3-934994-04-1.
Proceedings 2004€ 10,00Table of Contents
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Static and Low Frequency Review - 2003

Exposure to Static and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, Biological Effects and Health Consequences (0-100 kHz) - Review of the Scientific Evidence and Health Consequences. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2003.

Reviews 1 Dec 2003€ 30,00Hard cover and PDFTable of Contents
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Weak Electric Fields
Weak Electric Field Effects in the Body. Proceedings of an International Workshop, NRPB, Chilton, UK, March 24-25, 2003. McKinlay AF, Repacholi MH, eds. Nuclear Technology Publishing, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 106(4); 2003. ISBN 1904453023.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 2003Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
Pulsed Fields - 2003

Guidance on Determining Compliance of Exposure to Pulsed Fields and Complex Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms below 100 kHz with ICNIRP Guidelines. Health Physics 84 (3): 383-387; 2003.

Statements 1 March 2003
Sun Beds - 2003

Health Issues of Ultraviolet Tanning Appliances used for Cosmetic Purposes. Health Physics 84 (1): 119-127; 2003.

Statements 1 Jan 2003
Global Solar UVI - 2002
Global Solar UV Index. A Practical Guide. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
Joint Publications | Reports 2002View Document
Security Devices - 2002

Possible Health Risks to the General Public from the Use of Security and Similar Devices. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2002.

Reports 2002€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Protection Principles - 2002

General Approach to Protection against Non Ionizing Radiation. Health Physics 82 (4):540-548; 2002.

Statements 1 Apr 2002General Approach in Italian
General Approach in Spanish
EMF and Health - 2001

Review of the Epidemiologic Literature on EMF and Health. Environment Health Perspect 109(6): 911-934; 2001.

Reviews 2001
Biol. Effects of Pulsed RF
Biological Effects, Health Consequences and Standards for Pulsed Radiofrequency Fields. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Biological Effects, Health Consequences and Standards for Pulsed Radiofrequency Fields, Erice, Italy, November 21 to 25, 1999. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2001.
Proceedings 2001€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Laser Guidelines (400 nm - 1.4 µm) - 2000

Revision of the Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser radiation of wavelengths between 400 nm and 1.4 µm. Health Physics 79 (4): 431-440; 2000.

Guidelines 1 Oct 2000
LEDs & Laser Diodes - 2000

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDS) and Laser Diodes: Implications for Hazard Assessment. Health Physics 78 (6): 744-752; 2000.

Statements 1 June 2000
UV Radiation Exposure - 2000
Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure, Measurement and Protection. Proceedings of an International Workshop, NRPB, Chilton, UK, 18-20 October, 1999. AF McKinlay, MH Repacholi (eds.) Nuclear Technology Publishing, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol 91(1-3); 2000.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 2000Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
4th NIR Workshop
Executive Summary of the 4th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop Kyoto, Japan, May 22-25, 2000. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2000.
Proceedings 2000€ 20,00Hard cover
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EMF and Environment
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Living Environment. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Living Environment, Ismaning, Germany, October 4 and 5, 1999. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 2000.
Proceedings 2000€ 20,00Hard cover & PDFTable of Contents
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Health Effects of EMF
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range 300 Hz to 10 MHz. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in the Frequency Range 300 Hz to 10 MHz, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 7 and 8, 1999. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1999. 
Proceedings 1999€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Laser Pointers - 1999

Laser Pointers. Health Physics 77 (2): 218-220; 1999.

Statements 1 Aug 1999
Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards - 1999
Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards. A reference book based on presentations given by health and safety experts on optical radiation hazards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, September 1-3, 1998. Munich: ICNIRP / CIE-Publications; 1999.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 1 Aug 1999€ 30,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Exposure Metrics and Dosimetry - 1999
Exposure Metrics and Dosimetry for EMF Epidemiology. Proceedings of an International Workshop, NRPB, Chilton, UK; September 7-9, 1998. McKinlay AF, Repacholi MH, eds. Nuclear Technology Publishing, Radiation Protection Dosimetry 83(1-2); 1999. ISBN 1870965612.
Proceedings | Joint Publications 1999Table of ContentsOrder at Journal
Reference Book - 1999

Guidelines on Limiting Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation. A reference book based on guidelines on limiting exposure to non-ionizing radiation and statements on special applications. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1999. ISBN 978-3-9804789-6-0.

Guidelines | Statements 1999€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Use of EMF Guidelines - 1999

Use of the ICNIRP EMF Guidelines. Published at www.icnirp.org; March 1999.

Notes 31 Mar 1999
RF Heaters - Guide
Safety in the Use of Radiofrequency Dielectric Heaters and Sealers: A Practical Guide. Geneva: International Labour Office; 1998. ISBN 92-2-110333-1.
Joint Publications | Reports 1998View Document
EMF Guidelines (up to 300 GHz) - 1998
Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz). Health Physics 74 (4): 494-522; 1998.
and
Response to Questions and Comments on ICNIRP EMF Guidelines. Health Physics 75 (4): 438-439; 1998.
EMF Risk Communication
Risk Perception, Risk Communication and its Application to EMF Exposure. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Risk Perception, Risk Communication and its Application to EMF Exposure, Vienna, Austria, October 22-23, 1997. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1998.
Proceedings 1998€ 20,00Hard cover and PDFTable of Contents
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Biological Effects of Static Fields and ELF
Biological Effects of Static and ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Biological Effects of Static and ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields and related Health Risks, Bologna, Italy, June 4-5, 1997. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1997.
Proceedings 1997€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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Guidelines (0.38 - 3µm) - 1997

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Broad-Band Incoherent Optical Radiation (0.38 to 3µm). Health Physics 73 (3): 539-554; 1997.

Guidelines 1997
Non-Thermal Effects of RF
Non-Thermal Effects of RF Electromagnetic Fields. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Biological Effects of Non-Thermal Pulsed and Amplitude Modulated RF Electromagnetic Fields and Related Health Risks, Munich, Germany, November 20-21, 1996. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1997.
Proceedings 1 Sept 1997€ 20,00Hard coverTable of Contents
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UV Guidelines (180 - 400 nm) - 1996

Guidelines on UV Radiation Exposure Limits. Health Physics 71 (6): 978; 1996.

Guidelines 1 Dec 1996
Laser Guidelines (180nm-1mm) - 1996

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Laser Radiation of Wavelengths between 180 nm and 1 mm. Health Physics 71 (5): 804-819; 1996.

Guidelines 1996
3rd NIR Workshop - 1996
Non-Ionizing Radiation. Proceedings of the 3rd International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop Baden (Vienna), Austria, April 22-26, 1996. Munich: International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection; 1996.
Proceedings 1996€ 20,00Hard cover
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Mobile Communication - 1996

Health Issues Related to the Use of Hand-Held Radiotelephones and Base Transmitters. Health Physics 70 (4): 587-593; 1996.

Statements 1 Apr 1996
Power Frequency - Guide
Protection of Workers from Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields; A Practical Guide. Geneva: International Labour Office, Occupational Safety and Health Series 69; 1994. ISBN 92-2-108261-X/ISSN 0078-3129.
Joint Publications | Reports 1994View Document
EHC 160 on UV Radiation - 1994
Environmental Health Criteria 160: Ultraviolet Radiation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.
Joint Publications | Reports 1994Table of ContentsView Document
Guidelines Static Fields - 1994

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Health Physics 66 (1): 100-106; 1994.

Guidelines 1 Jan 1994
Use of Lasers - Guide
The Use of Lasers in the Workplace; A Practical Guide. Geneva: International Labour Office; Occupational Safety and Health Series, No. 68; 1993. ISBN 92-2-1082601/ISSN 0078-3129.
Joint Publications | Reports 1993View Document
EHC 137 on EMF - 1993
Environmental Health Criteria 137: Electromagnetic Fields (300 Hz to 300 GHz). Geneva, World Health Organization; 1993.
Joint Publications | Reports 1993View Document
2nd NIR Workshop (IRPA)
Non-Ionizing Radiation. Proceedings of the 2nd International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, May 10-14, 1992. IRPA-Publications. The Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1 Pnerley Road, Catford, London, SE6, GB.
Proceedings 1992Hard coverTable of Contents
MR Protection of Patients - 1991

Protection of the Patient Undergoing a Magnetic Resonance Examination. Health Physics 61 (6): 923-928; 1991.

Statements 1 Dec 1991
Fluorescent Lighting - 1990

Fluorescent Lighting and Malignant Melanoma. Health Physics 58 (1): 111-112; 1990.

Statements 1990
UV INIRC Gdl - 1989

Proposed Change to the IRPA 1985 Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation. Health Physics 56 (6): 971-972; 1989.

Guidelines 1 June 1989
1st NIR Workshop (IRPA)
Non-Ionizing Radiation. Physical characteristics, biological effects and health hazards assessment. Proceedings of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop Melbourne, 5-9 April, 1988. Australian Radiation Laboratory, Lower Plenty Road Yallambie, Victoria, Australia.
Proceedings 1988Hard coverTable of Contents
Visual Display Units - 1988

Alleged Radiation Risks from Visual Display Units - A Statement. Health Physics 54 (2): 231-232; 1988.

Statements 1 Feb 1988
RF and Microwave - Guide
Protection of Workers against Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation; A Technical Review. Geneva: International Labour Office; 1986. ISBN 92-2-105604-X/ISSN 0078-3129.
Joint Publications | Reports 1986Unavailable
NIR Terminology - 1985

Review of concepts, quantities, units and terminology for non-ionizing radiation protection. INIRC. Health Physics 49 (6): 1329-1362; 1985.

Reviews 1 Aug 1985
UV INIRC Gdl - 1985

Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation of Wavelengths between 180 nm and 400nm (Incoherent Optical Radiation). Health Physics 49 (2): 331-340; 1985.

Guidelines 1 August 1985
EHC 35 on ELF - 1984
Environmental Health Criteria 35: Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Fields. Geneva, World Health Organization; 1984.
Joint Publications | Reports 1984View Document
Ultrasound INIRC Gdl - 1984

Interim Guidelines on Limits of Human Exposure to Airborne Ultrasound. Health Physics 46 (4): 969-974; 1984.

Guidelines 1 April 1984
EHC 23 on Lasers - 1982
Environmental Health Criteria 23: Lasers and Optical Radiation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1982.
Joint Publications | Reports 1982Table of Contents View Document
EHC 22 on Ultrasound - 1982
Environmental Health Criteria 22: Ultrasound. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1982.
Joint Publications | Reports 1982Table of ContentsView Document